Reviewed By: Balach Baloch

This book is written under the Carnegie journalist program which was established in 1974 to maintain international peace by surveying , took voices to international level , By article , books , Tv , radio , Academic seminar for corrective action . In 1977 Carnegie endowment program selected Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran the most dangerous zones. So, a task was given to a specialist, Selig. S. Harrison to survey south Asia or south west Asia for 3 years and predict many international issues. Selig s Harrison predicted that if soviet foothold in Afghanistan then separatism movement will upsurge in Pakistan and Iran for the greater Baluchistan.

In this book Selig. S Harrison gave a quick look about history of Baloch and Baluchistan such as;

The myth of Baloch,

The emergence of Baloch nationalism,

Talking to triumptive,

The Baloch nationalism in Pakistan,

The Baloch nationalism Iran, and

Communism and Baloch nationalism.


Selig s Harrison in the first chapter of the book discussed the ideas of different historians about Baloch migration. He gave reference of chronicles of geology that Baloch resembles to the tribe that migrated from Syria (Aleppo) towards the Asia before Christ. He also gave the statement with reference to other historians that Baloch might be an ethnic group of Semitic Chaldean ruler of Babylon. Some argue that Baloch are decent of Arabs or Arab minority in south Asia. Many historians believe that Baloch and Kurds were under the Semitic Chaldean rulers of Babylon but they diverge from one another toward different coordinates. The Kurds migrated toward Iraq while Baloch migrated toward the Caspian sea, Harrison addsed.


The emergence of Baloch nationalism:

The Baloch national movement emerged in 1928 when Baloch were forcibly incorporated into Iran by Reza shah Pahlavi, and in 1947, after the partition, against Pakistan. The Baloch started armed struggle to end up the Iran and Pakistan's domination over Balochistan. The armed struggle was not equally same in western and eastern Baluchistan. The Khomeini's revolution suppressed the Baloch nationalist feelings in Iran, on the other hand in eastern Baluchistan, Pakistan was increasing it's military troops to a number of 80000, and there were 5,5000 Baloch fighters were fighting against the occupation. The situations in eastern Baluchistan were much critical then western Baluchistan,

While the _British raj_ always suppressed the Baloch nationalism and it's education system. Out of many just few families, such as Sardars' families were being provided education. This little exposure up surged a political consciousness that they started supporting anti British struggle and October revolution in Soviet Union. They believed that soviet objectives would be progressive and in result would bring the end of _British raj_ and help us in our independence. 

In 1930, Baloch newspaper was started and simultaneously several underground political groups were formed, such as Anjuman-e-ittihad (organization for the unity of Baluchistan), by Abdul Aziz Kurd. The Al-Baloch of Karachi newspaper 1933 published a map of greater Baluchistan. It Included the Baloch areas of Punjab and Sindh. In 1935 Abdul Aziz Kurd and Yousuf Aziz Magsi formed the Kalat State National Party and their goal was the independent Baluchistan. Their perspective was proved by British by giving choice to Baloch to seek their sovereignty or accession to Pakistan. The Kalat State National Party sough for independence.

According to 1876 treaty the princely state Kalat and Nepal are different from princely state of sub-continent. As according to the treaty with the withdraw of British, independence of Baluchistan will be respected. In 1946 khan of Kalat submitted a memorandum to British cabinet in accordance with1876 treaty hereof for the revert of Baloch tributaries back to Baluchistan.

On August 1947 one day before the creation of Pakistan the khan of Kalat declared Kalat an independent State and negotiated a better relation with Pakistan. However, Pakistani leaders rejected their declaration and after 9 month of tug of war, they forcefully annexed the State of Kalat in 27th of march 1948 with a pretext of a single Muslim identity.

Gaux Bulhah Bezanjo was the first who refused the amalgamation to Pakistan. He gave a speech in Kalat assembly,

“Baloch have a distinct culture like Afghanistan and Iran. If the motive is single Muslim identity then Afghanistan and Iran should also be amalgamated to Pakistan. If we cannot protect our selves by an atomic power then how Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan itself can protect themselves? because Baluchistan has more minerals and capacity to be economically stable than the rest of the States mentioned here”.


Just after the annexation of Kalat the younger brother of khan, Prince Abdul Karim former and commenced an armed struggle and declared a revolt against Pakistan with his 700 companions. Nevertheless, the government convinced him for a table talk with the claim of accepting their demands, where Prince Karim laid down his arms to the hands of Pakistan Army in Harboi Mountain. However, the treaty of save conduct was broken and he was arrest with his 102 companions. The same tactic of deception of save conduct was also played with Nawab Nauroz khan chief of  the Zehri tribe by Pakistan army in 1950's. When he assembled guerilla forces numbering 700 to 1000 freedom fighters. The agreement of save conduct was also broken and he was arrested with his son. His son with five others were hanged and Nawab was imprisoned and lost his last days in the jail at kohlu in 1964. 

Sher Muhammad (Known as Sherof Marri), cousin of two leaders of Bijarani section of marri tribes and a close-friend of Strong Sardar Khair Bukhash Marri. In 1963, he established twenty-two guerrilla camps in different areas of mengal tribes of jhalawan, Marri and Bugti tribes. The guerrillas lead operations against Pakistan army, which caused heavy causalities both side. In 1965 guerrillas claimed series of clashes with army in Gharur area in which more than 200 causalities occurred. The war continue until 1969.

Soon after, General Yahya khan agreed for cease-fire by ordering withdrawal of one unit plane. The Bhutto agreed for the first provincial government in which Ghaus Bukhas Bezanjo became the governor and Sardar Attallullah Mengal became Chief Minister of Baluchistan. But Bhutto suddenly overthrew the provincial government in 12th of February 1973 and they were alleged for having relations with Iraq and Soviet Union and it was said that they had 300 machine guns, 48000 round ammunitions and all these were shown to Iraq's embassy in Islamabad. While Iraq rejected the allegations and Baghdad explained that these weapons given to Baloch in Iran. Not to Baloch in Pakistan and western agencies accepted Iraq's explanation. 

After overthrowing the provincial government of Baluchistan, Bhutto started military operation in Baluchistan and for financial support; he flew to Tehran to ask for financial support of 200 million dollar and 8000 troops roamed. The operation started at every corner of Baluchistan searching one by one to every house, if any one resisted he\She was brutally beaten and gunned down. The overall situation in Baluchistan was so much critical that Pakistani army general Arbab jahanseb concluded that the situation is in our control we need to start an air force operation. In 3rd September 1974, operation started with both air and ground force. In the operation very heavy clashes occurred for 3 consecutive days and night. The Pakistani army account to killed 125 freedom fighters and claimed to had captured 900 among them alive. In the other hand Baloch fighters denied the claim with the statement of their minimum number of loses, and claimed to had killed 446 army soldiers. After having heavy clashes, Hazar Ramkhani decided to shift guerrilla camps to Afghanistan. Selig S. Harrison interviewed them  had conversations with fighters coming from battles and telling their story of fight. After Bhutto's ouster from the Pakistan's government, General Zia-ul-Haq imprisoned Baloch leaders and temporarily eliminated the insurgency. Nawab Marri and  Sardar Mengal left for Europe on exile. After their returns Attaullah and Ghaus Bukhash Bezanjo started parliamentary politics, while Marri favoured armed struggle and supported BPLF.




Khair Bux Marri quotes;

“If in any case we have to suffer then why for something small” why we should die for provincial autonomy not for greater Baluchistan. We will always remain in minority until we are in framework of Pakistan".

According to Nawab Khair Bux Marri Baluchistan's issue cannot be solve by parliamentary democracy, but the armed struggle will  be a benefit to achieve Baloch rights the freedom.


Ghaus Bakhash Bezanjo:

Ghaus Bakhash believed that upon the 1973 constitution of Pakistan, there is no safeguard for power to do something for our people there should not be confederation between different nations there should be a federation, which controls defense and foreign affairs and the rest of powers must be under control of Provincial government.


Attaullah Mengal:

Attaullah Mengal said to Selig s Harrison that, he wishes the withdrawal of Pakistan army from Baluchistan to protect the rights of Baluchistan. They want us to show patriotism. Let them call us traitor for thousand times this mean we are loyal to our people, people of Baluchistan. In an interview to voice of Baluchistan, he stated that, Baloch had reached to conclusion that there is no place for Pakistan to respect, we want to see Baluchistan a sovereign state and Baloch is an independent nation.  


As we see that over all Baloch insurgency from beginning was in a disorganized war, continued under tribal leaders, student’s leaders, urban leaders. The Baloch nationalist believed that they can pin down Pakistani forces, when they are armed with newly weapons and work in an organizational framework. In 1980, three organized Baluch nationalist groups were recognized BPLF, BSO, PNP.

The BPLF was  the outgrowth of guerrillas lead by Sher Muhammad Marri. Mir Hazar Ramkhani and Sher Muhammad Marri actively involved in reorganizing of guerrillas in the midst of 1976.

While BSO remained an unarmed political organization. BSO was further divide into two parts. However they both continued their struggle and published their publicationz such as 'Girokh, Sangat and Baam'.



From the Reza Shah and Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi to the advent of Khomeini's revolution. The Baloch nationalist movement in Iran was not then so sufficiently organized to take advantage of Iran's weaknesses, due to lack of political leaders. They looked towards the Eastern Balochistan's Baloch leaders as their national leaders.

Geographically Iranian Baluchistan is divided into five areas, which includes;

1. Jaz Maurine

2. Sarhad dessert 

3. Sarawan

4. Makran hills

5. Coastle plain

 In these areas Baloch had battlefields with Persian monarch for nearly 2000 years which was a racial hostility. The racial hostility was more rooted than Punjabi domination in Pakistan on Baluchistan. The Iranian leaders always wanted to make Baloch tribes integrated part of centralized Iranian State. In 1928, Reza Shah sent his forces over to the route of Jaz Maurine against Dost Muhammad who attempted to establish an independent Baloch principality. Most of the fifty-years, Tehran had primarily used the overt military forces to keep Baloch areas under control, a little insurgent activity was controlled by using a large force.

 By the end of Reza Shah reign in 1941, Muhammad Reza shah faced new challenges in the emergence of Baloch nationalism across the border. He was fearful that Baloch in Iran would be affected by the Greater Baluchistan movement. He pursued ruthless hard line policy towards Baloch to design to stifle any expression of Baloch identity by  limiting education.

 Balochi language was banned in schools,

 Baloch students were taught history, where they were portrayed as Persian ethnic group.

 Publication, distribution, and possession of Balochi language books was a crime.

 There was a ban on wearing of traditional Baloch attire in schools and public places.


Communism and Baloch nationalism:

 While the presence of Soviet forces in Afghanistan, made Iran too much worry that, Baloch in Pakistan get support from Soviet Union, which will indeed affect Iranian Baluchistan. Therefore, Shah of Iran decided to support and assist Bhutto with ground and air power to crush Baloch Movement. In an interview of Bhutto, where he said, Shah was very helpful in all sort of economic and military aid and support, much more we got for operation.

 However there is no evidence to be seen that Russia supported Baloch movement. Baloch movement has achieved it's own momentum.



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